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Turkey is a constitutional republic country. The Turkish legal system is based on codified civil law system. Courts are categorized as judicial courts or administrative courts. Also sub-categories exist. Since Turkey is a civil law country, legislation is the primary source of law.

There is a certain order of priority for the implementation of the applicable legislation in which the Constitution prevails over international treaties followed by the codes and regulations, statutory decrees, and by-laws. Civil Code and Code of Obligations are based on Swiss model. Commercial Code is influenced from the German Commercial Code. The Administrative Code bears similarities with the French administrative system and law.

Turkey’s judicial system has been wholly integrated with the system of continental Europe. The judicial system has a multipartite structure at the levels of first instance courts and supreme courts. The Turkish court system does not recognize the concept of a jury. Verdicts for civil or criminal trials are reached by a judge/panel of three judges. The judicial system is composed of general law courts and most cases were prosecuted in the general courts which include civil, administrative and criminal courts. The legal environment in Turkey has progressed in an investor-friendly fashion in recent years. Turkey is a member of the United Nations since 1945. Turkey is a member of the Council of Europe since 1949. Turkey is a member of Nato since 1952.

Fahrettin Erdem Yıldızeli - Yıldızeli & Çakmaklı Hukuk - YC Hukuk

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